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Asteroseismology is the study of the interior structures of stars by utilizing their oscillations as seismic waves. Due to recently available new data of unprecedented precision, such as radial velocity measurements to better than a metre per second per spectrum, or space photometry to a few parts per million, asteroseismology enters a golden age. This paper by Gerald Handler of the Copernicus Center in Warsaw provides a review of the field, aimed at an audience of graduate students but also suitable for more experienced researchers. Pulsating stars are introduced on a phenomenological basis, then some theoretical and observational background is given. The reader is guided through example asteroseismic analyses based on published papers. Finally, results from asteroseismology are highlighted for several groups of pulsating stars and the future evolution of the field is attempted to be foreseen.