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Elliptical accretion disk as a model for tidal disruption events: A Jerusalem bagel from Beijing

A star passing close enough to the supermassive black hole is disrupted by tidal forces, and stellar debris falls onto a black hole triggering a tidal disruption event (TDE). It is commonly assumed that the accretion disk that forms circularizes efficiently, because of the relativistic apsidal precession and interactions between the crossing streams of matter. This picture is challenged by observations of the optical / UV spectra and the total bolometric output of the TDEs. If the circularization is inefficient, which is suggested by some numerical simulations, such low angular momentum accretion flow should result in a formation of an elliptical accretion disk. Such a model, with radiation originating from the shocks at the self-intersection of streams, was proposed by Tsvi Piran and colleagues. In the current paper the details of a different model of an elliptical TDE accretion disk, originating from the Beijing group of Fukun Liu, is discussed. In this case the energy dissipation occurs mainly in the accretion disk near the pericenter of the flow. Marek Abramowicz and Maciek Wielgus, associated with the Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, contributed to this research.


A standard circular accretion disk is commonly referred to as a “Polish doughnut” (a name coined by sir Martin Rees, who is also one of the fathers of the classic theory of TDEs). To highlight the geometric difference of the elliptical disk, while remaining in the pastry-inspired namespace, Piran coined a name “Jerusalem bagel” (see figure). To stress similarities and differences, the accretion disks described in this paper are referred to as "Jerusalem bagels from Beijing". It is worth noticing that the geometry of an actual Polish doughnut corresponds to a spherical geometry of Bondi accretion.


The paper, accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal, can be found here.