Nicolaus Copernicus, born 19 February 1473 in Torun, died 24 May 1543 in Frombork. Polish astronomer, mathematician, economist and cleric. In the years 1491 - 1494 he studied at the Cracow Academy, then, from 1496, astronomy in Bolognia and, from 1501, law and medicine in Padua. At Ferrera he obtained a doctorate in canonical law. In 1503 he returned to Poland and settled in Frombork, where in 1497 he had been elected Canon of the Cathedral, a post which gave him a stable source of income. For many years he developed the heliocentric theory of the Solar System, supported by his own observations. In 1510 - 1514 the circulated the Commentariolus, a manuscript containing the main theses of his theory. However, he only allowed the full version of his work De revolutionibus orbium celestium in 1540.